Country name: Malaysia
Capital and largest city: Kuala Lumpur
Population: 27.4 million
Muslims 52.7%, Buddhists 16.7%, Christians 6.8%, Hindus 6.7%, Others 17.1%.
Bahasa Malaysia (official), English, Chinese (Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainan, Foochow), Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Panjabi, Thai.
Currency: 1 ringgit = 100 sen
Closely resembling the Bicameral Westminster System, Malaysia’s Government has an appointed Senate (upper house) and an elected House of Representatives (lower house). The prime minister, Najib Razak, heads the ruling coalition (Barisian Nasional, BN), of which the right wing political party UMNO (United Malays National Organisation) is by far the largest component. Malaysia is a federation consisting of peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak.
National Front (BN), of which the main components are:
United Malays National Organization (UMNO)
Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA)
Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC)
Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia
People's Progressive Party
United Traditional Bumiputera Party (PBB)
Sarawak United People's Party (SUPP)
Sabah United Party
The opposition Pakatan Rakyat or People's Pact:
People's Justice Party (PKR)
Democratic Action Party (DAP)
Islamic Party of Malaysia (PAS)
Malaysian People's Welfare Party (KITA)
Sarawak National Party (SNAP)
Malaysian Socialist Party
Sabah Progressive Party (SAPP)
Malaysian People's Party (PRM)
There are several other minor federal parties and Regional parties that have a national presence but participate in elections in only one state.
Head of State:
Nine Peninsular Malaysian states have hereditary monarchies (led by Sultans or the Yang di-Pertuan Besar in the case of the state of Negri Sembilan), while the four other states including Sabah and Sarawak are headed by appointed governors. The federal-level King or Yang di-Pertuan Agong is constitutionally the highest ranking office (albeit purely ceremonial) in the country, and is rotated among the nine state-level monarchs for five-year terms. The current King is Mizan Zainal Abidin, who is also the Sultan of the state of Terengganu. His tenure will end in December 2011.
Najib Abdul Razak
Malaysia does not have any official diplomatic ties with Israel. Malaysia recognizes Israel as a de facto state, although this recognition is not formal and the territory of Israel is commonly referred to as Palestine. There is a Palestinian Embassy in Kuala Lumpur, which was originally the liaison office of the Palestinian Liberation Organization. There are no direct trade relations between Malaysia and Israel although indirect trade does occur through third states such as Singapore and Thailand. There are no diplomatic offices in either country, and the Israeli Embassy in Singapore is the point of contact for Malaysian residents.
Visas for Israelis:
Malaysian visas are not generally granted to Israeli citizens and Malaysians are not allowed to visit Israel as stated in their passports. Special permission for Israelis to enter and Malaysians to visit Israel must be applied to and granted by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. For other nationals, Israeli passport stamps do not pose an obstacle to entry into Malaysia.
Initially Malaya (as it was then) recognized Israel, largely as a formality from becoming a member of the UN in 1957 (Israel was already a member of the UN), as well as a reciprocal gesture for Israel's vote in favor of Malayan membership. Diplomatic relations though were never established despite Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman's early receptiveness to Israeli diplomatic efforts to establish formal relations, although a commercial office was opened in Kuala Lumpur in 1962. Beginning in the 1960s, opposition to Malaysian recognition of and contacts with Israel grew as the Islamic opposition PMIP party gained influence. Coming under mounting pressure from the PMIP and conservative members within the Malay UMNO government, in 1965 the government withdrew official recognition of Israel. Following 1967, after Israel had acquired religious Muslim sites, the prime ministers Tunku Abdul Rahman announced commitments to the Muslim and more specifically, Palestinian cause.
During the premierships of Tun Razak and Hussein Onn, Malaysia further developed its relations with the Arab world, becoming a founding member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference in 1969. Malaysia has strongly supported the International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People held by the UN and Fatah was allowed to open an office in 1969 in Kuala Lumpur, becoming a PLO office in 1974. However, up until the late 1970s principled opposition to Israel still did not form part of Malaysian foreign policy. Malaysia strengthened relations with Egypt following the latter's expulsion from the Arab League (in response to the Egyptian-Israeli Peace Treaty of 1977) and abstained from the OIC vote to expel Egypt at the 1979 Fez Conference.
Under Mahathir (who became Prime Minister in 1981), Malaysia's opposition to Israel became more pronounced. In the 1980s Malaysia supported Iran's efforts to expel Israel from the United Nations, while the PLO office in Kuala Lumpur was given full diplomatic status in 1982. At the same time, Mahathir embarked on a policy of championing Islamic unity and Third World interests at the expense of Malaysia's solid historical ties with the Commonwealth and the United States. Anti-Jewish rhetoric reached a crescendo coinciding with Chaim Herzog’s visit to Singapore in 1986, seen as a provocative act that led to a formal diplomatic protest and the temporary withdrawal of the Malaysian high commissioner in Singapore. In 1990 Malaysia supported the U.S.-led coalition's liberation of Kuwait from Iraq but unsuccessfully attempted to link its support to a similar measure in the Palestinian territories. Throughout the 1990s, Malaysia strongly opposed U.S.-led sanctions against Iraq.
However, between the 1993 Oslo Accords and the Malaysian economic crisis in 1997, Malaysia softened its hardline stance towards Israel (see timeline). In 1997, at the height of the Malaysian financial crisis, he attributed the collapse of the Malaysian ringgit to a Jewish conspiracy against a prosperous Muslim state: "The Jews robbed the Palestinians of everything, but in Malaysia they could not do so, hence they do this, depress the (Malaysian) Ringgit." Under strong international criticism, he issued a partial retraction. Anti-Israel sentiment proliferated again in the final years of his premiership. On 16 October 2003, shortly before he stepped down as prime minister, Mahathir said during a summit of the OIC in Putrajaya, that "today the Jews rule the world by proxy. They get others to fight and die for them. They invented socialism, communism, human rights and democracy so that persecuting them would appear to be wrong so they may enjoy equal rights with others." (CNN)
Under Abdullah Badawi (2003-2009), anti-Israel sentiment mellowed as public attention shifted to domestic affairs. Mahathir's nationalist-flavored Islamic Internationalism gave way to Badawi's "Islam Hadhari", which was more development-focused and placed less emphasis on outspoken criticism of Israel and the West. Mahathir's departure from the political scene also removed much energy from the organized pro-Palestinian movement in Malaysia, and it fell mainly upon the Islamic PAS party to highlight apparent instances of bilateral contact between Malaysia and Israel. Material and moral support for Palestinians continued under Badawi however, and in 2005 his government declined to use Israel's withdrawal from the Gaza Strip as a basis for bilateral engagement with Israel. In 2006 Malaysia announced it would send peacekeepers to Lebanon under a UN force, prompting Israeli opposition. To date, Prime Minister Najib Razak (2009 - present) has shown even less of Mahathir's hostility towards Israel, although he has continued his predecessors' commitment to the Palestinian cause, most notably when he labelled Israel "the world's gangsters" following the arrest of Malaysian activists aboard the Gaza Flotilla in April 2010.
Recent chronology of major events:
1956 - Former Israeli Prime Minister Moshe Sharett visits British-administered Malaya on 4 October and meets with Malayan Chief Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman.
1957 - The Federation of Malaya achieves independence from Britain on 31 August. Tunku Abdul Rahman becomes Malaya's first Prime Minister. Malaya becomes the 82nd member of the United Nations after vote at the UN General Assembly's 678th meeting. Israel votes in favor of Malayan membership. As a formal part of its membership, Malaysia recognizes the State of Israel, a UN member state.
1960 - The "Malayan Emergency" ends; the communist insurgency that began in 1948 is ended through a joint counter-insurgency campaign by British and Malaysian forces.
1963 - Malaya combines with Singapore and the Borneo states of Sabah and Sarawak to form the Federation of Malaysia.
1963-6 - The "Confrontation" with Indonesia: Indonesia actively opposes Malaysian federation and launches a failed attempts at an invasion of Malaysia through the use of guerillas.
1965 - The UMNO General Assembly in May votes over a resolution to withdraw Malaysian recognition of Israel. In September, Malaysia withdraws its recognition of "the government of Israel", though not Israel itself.
1965 - Singapore withdraws from Malaysia to become an independent state.
1969 - May 13 riots: bloody interethnic clashes between Malays and Chinese.
1969 - Malaysia grants the Palestine Liberation Organization permission to open a liaison office in Kuala Lumpur. This office is later granted embassy status in 1982.
1981 - Dr Mahathir Mohamed becomes Prime Minister.
1986 - Israeli President Chaim Herzog's visit to Singapore is vocally opposed by Malaysia.
1993 - Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin's visit to Singapore passes without opposition from the Malaysian government.
1994 - Tunku Abdullah bin Tunku Abdul Rahman, the brother of the incumbent King pays a private visit to Israel without government permission. He meets with Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Foreign Minister Shimon Peres. On return to Malaysia he is reprimanded.
1994 - PM Mahathir met with Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Foreign Minister Shimon Peres in Paris on 6 July.
1996 – Malaysia's Public Bank and Israel's Bank Hapoalim sign an agreement to facilitate direct financial transactions between Malaysia and Israel.
1997 – The government allows the Israeli national cricket team to participate in the ICC Trophy held in Malaysia, despite domestic opposition from Malaysian Muslims.
1998 - Deputy Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim is sacked, prosecuted and convicted for corruption and sodomy. Demonstrations erupt in Kuala Lumpur, calling for reforms and Anwar's release.
1999 - Foreign Minister Hamid Albar met with Israeli counterpart David Levy at the United Nations in New York. They agreed that "Israel and Malaysia should open up to each other" and to set up a bilateral committee to study ways of bringing Israel and Malaysia closer (http://www3.haaretz.co.il/eng/scripts/article.asp?id=56927&mador=1&datee=9/27/99)
2000 – Malaysia allows a 14-strong Israeli team to participate in the World Team Table Tennis Championships held in Kuala Lumpur.
2003 - Dr Mahathir steps down as prime minister, transfering the office to Deputy Prime Minister Abdullah Badawi.
2004 - Former Malaysian PM Mahathir gives an interview to Israel's Channel 10 presenter Guy Sharett. He tells Sharett that establishing bilateral relations is "not impossible" and that "(Malaysia) is always looking for markets and Israel has lots of technology we hope to be able to share". (http://newscompass.blogspot.com/2004/05/former-malaysian-pm-mahathir-on.html)
2008 - The general election: the governing Barisan Nasional coalition suffers its largest ever electoral losses but manages to retain control of Parliament to form a government.
2008 - Defense Minister Hamidi met with Israeli counterpart Ehud Barak on the sidelines of the Paris Air Show.
2009 - Abdullah Badawi steps down as prime minister in favor of his Deputy, Najib Razak.
Malaysia's UN profile vis-a-vis Israel:
Consistently votes against Israel in UN resolutions and occasionally sponsors General Assembly resolutions condemning Israel in response to particular Israeli acts. More recently, in June 2010 Malaysia called on the UN to refer Israel to the International Criminal Court in response to the interception of the Gaza Flotilla in May that year (despite neither country being party to the Rome Statute of the ICC).
In March 2011 the Malaysian Cabinet ratified the Rome Statute, paving the way for Malaysian membership of the ICC. A foreign policy motivation was that as an ICC member, Malaysia would be in a position to refer Israel to the ICC, and that it would also be entitled to send a judge to the Court.
Malaysia, a middle-income country, has transformed itself since the 1970s from a producer of raw materials into an emerging multi-sector economy. After coming to office in 2003, Prime Minister Abdullah tried to move the economy farther up the value-added production chain by attracting investments in high technology industries, medical technology, and pharmaceuticals. The Government of Malaysia is continuing efforts to boost domestic demand to wean the economy off of its dependence on exports.
Nevertheless, exports - particularly of electronics - remain a significant driver of the economy. As an oil and gas exporter, Malaysia has profited from higher world energy prices, although the rising cost of domestic gasoline and diesel fuel forced Kuala Lumpur to reduce government subsidies. Malaysia "unpegged" the ringgit from the US dollar in 2005 and the currency appreciated 6% per year against the dollar in 2006-08. Although this helped to hold down the price of imports, inflationary pressures began to build in 2007 - in 2008 inflation stood at nearly 6%, year-over-year. Healthy foreign exchange reserves and a small external debt greatly reduce the risk that Malaysia will experience a financial crisis over the near term similar to the one in 1997. The government presented its five-year national development agenda in April 2006 through the Ninth Malaysia Plan, a comprehensive blueprint for the allocation of the national budget from 2006-10. Abdullah unveiled a series of ambitious development schemes for several regions that had trouble attracting business investment. Real GDP growth averaged about 6% per year under Abdullah but regions outside of Kuala Lumpur and the manufacturing hub Penang have not fared as well.
Israel-Malaysia trade relations:
There are no official trade relations although indirect trade occurs unofficially through third countries. Malaysia does not report trade figures with Israel. For instance, according to the UN's International Commodity Trade Statistics Database, in 2005 Israel reported bilateral trade with Malaysia worth US$130.7 million, while Malaysia reported two-way trade worth US$985. In 2008, Israel reported trade worth US$30 million, while Malaysia reported just $1,605. Between 2000 and 2001, Intel Corp. Israel exported semi-manufactured computer chips worth about US$600-700 million from its Kiryat Gat plant in Israel to Intel Malaysia's Penang and Kulim plants for finishing.
As of 1990 there were three Jewish families left in Georgetown on Penang (Pulau Pinang) Island. The synagogue at 28 Jalan Nagore was closed. There was a small Jewish cemetery on Jalan Yahudi (Jewish Street).
The history of Jewish life in Malaysia is strongly linked to the history of Jewish life in Singapore. In the years and decades after Malaysian independence, practically the entire small Jewish community moved to Singapore or emigrated elsewhere. In 1976 Malaysia's sole synagogue, the Penang Synagogue, was closed due to the insufficient number of Jews available to maintain it.
In Penang there is a diminutive expatriate community in Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia is home to a number of kashrut-certified food processing plants that use kosher-compliant additives and chemicals, the first plant being certified in the 1970s by American Rabbi Don Yoel Levy. An American-based kashrut certification authority presently oversees the certification of the Malaysian plants, numbering between 5-10.
Generally there is a large degree of freedom of religion in Malaysia, though in March 2011 Prime Minister Najib warned against religious pluralism in Malaysia, saying that it went against Islamic principles. He nonetheless guaranteed respect and fair treatment for all other faiths. There have not been any statements on the practice of Judaism in Malaysia.
Anti-semitism is not commonly found among the general population, and where present it is mostly found among the rural Malay Muslim communities as opposed to urban Malays/other ethnicities and is largely derived from stereotypes and ignorance. There has also been little or no anti-semitic sentiment in the current government of Prime Minister Najib, although pronouncements against Israel as a nation are still commonplace. In instances where Malaysia has interacted with Jewish groups, these have almost exclusively been anti-Zionist charedi groups (e.g. Neturei Karta), with whom Malaysians have generally symphathized.
None. Whilst the historical significance of the Holocaust is acknowledged, in March 1994 the Malaysian Fim Censorship Board controversially banned the Holocaust-related film Schindler's List from Malaysian theatres, stating that "it seems the illustration is propaganda with the purpose of asking for sympathy, as well as to tarnish the other [impliedly German] race." (New York Times, April 7, 1994; South China Morning Post, April 18, 1994)
Malaysian Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Malaysi Ministry of International Trade & Industry
Media & Web Portals:
New Straits Times
For further information, contact:
Sumber : Israel - Asia Center (http://www.israelasiacenter.org)
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kenapa gua sibuk sibuk kaji pasal hubungan malaysia - israel pulak ni? ya, sebab pendedahan dokumen (gambar) di bawah. kalau mengikut sumber berita AP, sejak tahun 1996 lagi mahathir dah bagi lampu hijau untuk berdagang dengan israel. sila rujuk (Malaysia allows trade, but no diplomatic ties with Israel - Jerusalem Post)
KUALA LUMPUR - In a major shift in its Mideast policy, Malaysia has decided to lift its trade embargo on Israel, but has no plans for diplomatic relations soon, officials said yesterday.
Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad told reporters the move was in response to Israel's apparent willingness to honor its agreement with the Palestinians.
"If the Palestinians and others can ... I don't see why we cannot gradually restore relations with Israel," he said.
Asked if the relations he referred to meant diplomatic ties, Mahathir said: "Not yet, as long as …
dan baru baru ini, MP Bakri, Er Teck Hwa (DAP) dihalau keluar dari parlimen kerana bertanyakan soalan mengenai hubungan antara Malaysia - Israel. rujuk (MPs booted from Parliament over poser on M'sia-Israel economic ties - The Sun). kelakar bukan?
Micha Harish, Israel Minister of Industry and Trade, Israel-Asia Chamber of Commerce, who stated in one of the magazines: "The public declaration of the Malaysian Prime Minister and Minister of International Trade and Industrial that their country intends to pursue economic relations with Israel is another milestone in the development of trade this continent."
|sumber : Kenyataan Rasmi MP Bakri Isu Perdagangan Malaysia-Israel|
|sumber : Malaysian contraband - Rigotnomics|
|sumber : penubuhan israel dan umno|