Apr 26, 2011


25 tahun yang lalu, bandar Pripyat adalah tempat yang diimpikan oleh rakyat Soviet : gaji tinggi, hidup mewah dan infrastruktur moden - sebuah bandar khas buat pekerja loji tenaga nuklear Chernobyl. Segalanya berubah pada tarikh 26 April ketika reaktor Chernobyl meletup.

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Beds sit in disarray in a kindergarten in the ghost city of Pripyat on April 4. (Sergei Supinsky/AFP/Getty Images)

Seventy-two year old Natalia Makeenko (left) hugs eighty-two year old Galina Shcyuka in the abandoned village of Savichi on April 21, close to the 19-mile exclusion zone around the Chernobyl nuclear reactor. (Viktor Drachev/AFP/Getty Images)

Viktor and Lydia Gaidak in their apartment in the Desnyanskiy district at the outskirts of Kyiv, Ukraine on April 27, 2007. Viktor Gaidak worked for 24 years as an engineer at the Chernobyl plant, including nine years after the 1986 accident. In 2004 he had surgery for colon cancer. (Michael Forster Rothbart)

Olya Podoprigora, 13, and 18-month-old Parvana Sulemanova, recover in the ICU one day after open-heart surgeries in Kharkiv, Ukraine. Both girls had congenital heart defects, and every year, 6,000 children in Ukraine are born with genetic heart disease. Radiation is suspected as the cause, but is not proven. (Michael Forster Rothbart)

Ornithologist Igor Chizhebskiy holds a nestful of newly hatched chicks on a wooded hilltop above the Chernobyl cooling pond. His research compares birth and survival rates of birds born in highly radioactive sites to those in less contaminated areas within the Zone. Surveys of birds, insects, and spiders by Igor and his colleagues indicate that many species are either absent or exist in very low numbers in the Chernobyl region. The diminished bird populations could be caused by radiation directly or may be due to a decrease in food sources such as insects. (Michael Forster Rothbart)

Vehicles contaminated by radioactivity lay dormant on November 10, 2000 near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Some 1,350 Soviet military helicopters, buses, bulldozers, tankers, transporters, fire engines and ambulances were used while fighting the nuclear accident. All were irradiated during the clean-up operation. (Efrem Lukatsky/AP)

Schoolchildren wear gas masks during nuclear safety training lessons in Rudo, Ukraine near an isolated zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant April 3, 2006. (AP Photo/Sergey Ponomarev) 


sumber : harakahdaily

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Tolls are a regressive tax, i.e. the charge doesn't vary according to income, and thus affects roads users on low incomes more than it does those who are better off.

Tolls are inefficient - a very large proportion of what is paid in tolls goes into the cost of collecting it.

Tolls are wasteful - apart from the cost of a collection and enforcement bureaucracy, authorities that operate tolls tend to be overmanned and looking for ways in which they can use up the money as fast as it comes rolling in.

Tolls are unfair - in most countries, tolls are paid on top of other taxes on roads users - so drivers are paying twice.

Tolls don't encourage fuel economy or distinguish between cars with different fuel consumption or using "greener" fuels. They lead to more wasted fuel as drivers detour and take longer routes to avoid tolls. It is better to charge for roads through taxes on fuel as this helps to conserve fuel supplies and reduce emissions by encouraging drivers to be more careful with their use of fuel and to car share etc.

Tolls cause some drivers to make longer journeys on less suitable roads which increases congestion and the risk of accidents.

Toll collection causes vehicles to slow down or stop. This is annoying for drivers. It also wastes more fuel, and leads to more accidents as the vehicles approach the tolls trying to get into a lane with the smallest queue and fumbling for cash. Fully electronic tolls reduce these harmful effects, but do not remove them; and in many cases there is a mixture of electronic and cash tolls which can cause more delays and accidents as drivers detour to get into the correct toll lane.

Where toll collection is electronic (using or backed up by cameras), then many drivers are treated as criminals with substantial numbers fined when they fail to pay for any reason.

Tolls are often privately run, and even where they are not there is a great temptation to cash in by selling the toll money making machine. Private operators and their bankers usually make large profits. It is cheaper to pay for roads through either taxes or Government borrowings (which are eventually repaid through taxes).

If there are two areas, one with tolls and the other without, then businesses, potential employees and tourists will prefer the area without tolls. Tolls reduce beneficial "agglomeration" effects as they divide people and businesses.

Tolls, particularly on river crossings, divide communities and create a "wrong side of the tracks".

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Regressive Tax

What Does Regressive Tax Mean?

A tax that takes a larger percentage from low-income people than from high-income people. A regressive tax is generally a tax that is applied uniformly. This means that it hits lower-income individuals harder.

Investopedia explains Regressive Tax

Some examples include gas tax and cigarette tax. For example, if a person has $10 of income and must pay $1 of tax on a package of cigarettes, this represents 10% of the person's income. However, if the person has $20 of income, this $1 tax only represents 5% of that person's income.

Sales taxes that apply to essentials are generally considered to be regressive as well because expenses for food, clothing and shelter tend to make up a higher percentage of a lower income consumer's overall budget. In this case, even though the tax may be uniform (such as 7% sales tax), lower income consumers are more affected by it because they are less able to afford it.

notasemut : baca dan hadamkan. gua sibuk takde masa nak translate. selamat membayar tol!


Dari Fail Guantanamo : kesemua 779 tahanan - database interaktif

Dokumen yang bocor ke Guardian memberikan butiran penangkapan dan pemindahan 779 orang ke Guantanamo, di antaranya dalang 9 / 11, di mana kebanyakan mereka adalah petani Afghanistan. Ketahui siapa, bagaimana mereka ditangkap, dan mengapa. Klik gambar di bawah untuk maklumat lanjut.

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Dua rakyat Malaysia yang ditahan. Diletakkan di bawah kumpulan High Value Detainee. Serius gua tak kenal. 

notasemut : siapa ada database lengkap tahanan ISA kamunting? mintak kongsi.. gua nak study sikit